Puebla

state

2020: 6,583,278, Population

2021-S1: -0.63, Economic complexity (ECI)

 2020: US$14.2B, International sales

  2020: US$9.02B, International purchases

 2021-Q2: 2,996,038, Economically Active Population

  2021-Q2: 4.01 %, Unemployment rate

2021-Q2: 72.2 %, Labor informality rate

  2020  : $39.6k MX, Average quarterly current income

Jan-Jun 2021: US$208M, Foreign direct investment

In 2015, the population in Puebla was 6,583,278 inhabitants (48% men and 52% women). Compared to 2010, the population in Puebla increased by 13.9%.

International sales of Puebla in 2020 were US$14.2B, -20.2% less than the previous year. The products with the highest level of international sales in 2020 were Motor Cars and other Vehicles Principally Designed Cars for Transport of Persons (US$9.24B), Parts and Accessories of Motor Vehicles (US$1.81B), and Apparatus for Filtering or Purifying Liquids or Gases (US$652M).

International purchases of Puebla in 2020 were US$9.02B, -26.8% less than the previous year. The products with the highest level of international purchases in 2020 were Parts and Accessories of Motor Vehicles (US$1.91B), Initiators and Reaction Accelerators and Catalytic Preparations, not Specified or Included Elsewhere (US$1.12B), and Motor Cars and other Vehicles Principally Designed Cars for Transport of Persons (US$945M).

In the second quarter of 2021, the economically active population of Puebla was 3M people. The workforce reached 2.88M people (40.4% women and 59.6% men) with an average monthly salary of $3.53k MX. The occupations that concentrate the largest number of workers were Support Workers in Agriculture (312k), Sales Employees, Dispatchers and Dependent on Trade (220k), and Traders in Stores (171k). Puebla registered 120k unemployed (unemployment rate of 4.01%).

In 2015, 50% of the population was in a situation of moderate poverty and 10.9% in extreme poverty. The vulnerable population due to social deprivation reached 22%, while the vulnerable population by income was 6.11%.

In 2020, 4.82% of the population in Puebla had no access to sewage systems, 4.45% did not have a water supply network, 1.68% did not have a bathroom and 0.76% did not have electricity.

Evolution of COVID-19 Cases

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Scale
Time Axis

* The dashed line indicates preliminary data that will be confirmed during the next 7 days.

The visualization presents the evolution of daily cases by COVID-19 in Puebla.

With the selector at the top it is possible to change the visualization to the evolution of deaths by COVID-19 (daily or accumulated). There is also the option of viewing the data with a 7-day rolling mean or a rate per 100,000 inhabitants.

The visualization shows the distribution of deaths according to comorbidity in Puebla. All the deceased reported to date are considered.

The buttons at the top allow you to see this distribution for the total of confirmed cases and hospitalized cases to date in Puebla.

Go to COVID-19 Explorer

COVID-19 Cases by Sex and Age Range

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The visualization shows the distribution of confirmed cases according to age range and sex in Puebla to the date.

The selector at the top allows you to see this distribution for deceased and hospitalized patients. Additionally, when selecting type of patient it is possible to visualize the distribution by age range of hospitalized and outpatient patients.

Go to COVID-19 Explorer

Types of Credits

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The general objective of the financial support program for family micro-businesses is to contribute to the permanence of micro-businesses, companies, people who work on their own, people who provide services, domestic workers and independent workers, in the face of the economic crisis derived from the health emergency caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus, both to safeguard their economic activity and to maintain the jobs they generate.

There are 5 types of support. The first corresponds to the IMSS-Employers, credits granted with the objective of meeting the financing need of companies with employer registration in the IMSS that, as of April 15, 2020, kept the average of their workforce from the first quarter of 2020.

In second place is the IMSS-Homeworkers , credits granted in order to meet the need for financing of domestic workers and independent workers, valid in their rights as of April 30, 2020.

Then, there are the credits of the Bienestar modality, credits granted in order to meet the need for financing of micro-businesses, both in the formal and informal sectors, as well as people who work on their own account and people who provide services.

In recent months, the Empresas Cumplidas credit was created for individuals or legal entities that have fulfilled their tax obligations during 2020 and have maintained at least the average of their workforce in the IMSS during the months of August to October 2020.

Finally, the Mujeres Solidarias credit for individuals who are women, over 18 years of age and who are incorporated into one of the active RIF or RAE tax regimes. In addition, they must not be registered in the UDP bureau, nor have they received financial support from the program in fiscal year 2020.

Credits Collected by Modality

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45,548, Total credits collected

Due to the economic crisis caused by COVID-19, the financial support program for family micro-businesses has been created, which has 3 types of credits.

The values under each figure indicate the total credits collected in each modality in Puebla, until June 30, 2021 .

Credits Collected by Municipalities

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The visualization shows the distribution of credits collected as of June 30, 2021, in Puebla according to municipalities. With the upper button it is possible to review this distribution for the 5 types of available credits.

In Puebla, the municipalities that have received the most credits from the IMSS-Employers modality are Puebla (3,918) and Tehuacán (522). In the IMSS-Homeworkers modality, the municipalities with the most credits collected are Puebla (161) and Tehuacán (16). In the Wellness modality, the municipalities that have collected the most credits are Puebla (11,559) and Tehuacán (8,728).

Regarding the Empresas Cumplidas modality, the municipalities of Puebla (412) and Tehuacán (141) stand out, while in the Mujeres Solidarias modality, Puebla (266) and Tehuacán (83) stand out.

* The municipalities in gray do not present data or the values have been anonymized.

International Sales

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Motor Cars and other Vehicles Principally Designed Cars for Transport of Persons: US$9.24B, Main Exported Product (2020)

United States: US$8.68B, Main Destination (2020)

* Foreign trade data has been anonymized.

The main international sales in 2020 were Motor Cars and other Vehicles Principally Designed Cars for Transport of Persons (US$9.24B), Parts and Accessories of Motor Vehicles (US$1.81B), and Apparatus for Filtering or Purifying Liquids or Gases (US$652M).

The main international sales destinations in 2020 were United States (US$8.68B), Germany (US$2.86B), and Canada (US$735M).

International Purchases

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Parts and Accessories of Motor Vehicles: US$1.91B, Main Imported Product (2020)

United States: US$2.27B, Main Origin (2020)

* Foreign trade data has been anonymized.

The main international purchases in 2020 were Parts and Accessories of Motor Vehicles (US$1.91B), Initiators and Reaction Accelerators and Catalytic Preparations, not Specified or Included Elsewhere (US$1.12B), and Motor Cars and other Vehicles Principally Designed Cars for Transport of Persons (US$945M).

The main countries of origin of international purchases in 2020 were United States (US$2.27B), Germany (US$1.91B), and China (US$637M).

Net International Trade

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June, 2021: US$1.17B, International purchases

 June, 2021: US$1.39B, International sales

* Foreign trade data has been anonymized.

In june 2021, international sales of Puebla were US$1.39B and a total of US$1.17B in international purchases. For this month the net trade balance of Puebla it was of US$215M.

Monthly International Trade

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* Foreign trade data has been anonymized.

The main international sale in june 2021 was Motor Cars and other Vehicles Principally Designed Cars for Transport of Persons (US$837M). The main international sales destinations were United States (US$822M), Germany (US$323M), and Canada (US$91.1M).

The main international purchase in june 2021 was Parts and Accessories of Motor Vehicles (US$217M). The main countries of origin of international purchases were United States (US$279M), Germany (US$177M), and Hungary (US$67.8M).

Net Trade Balance

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* Foreign trade data has been anonymized.

In Puebla, the municipalities with the highest level of international sales in 2020 were Cuautlancingo (US$6.92B), Puebla (US$1.48B), Huejotzingo (US$508M), Amozoc (US$236M), and Tehuacán (US$167M).

In Puebla, the municipalities with the highest level of international purchases in 2020 were Cuautlancingo (US$5.49B), Puebla (US$1.17B), Huejotzingo (US$556M), San Andrés Cholula (US$311M), and Amozoc (US$177M).

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

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  • US$208M, FDI Jan-Jun 2021
  • US$16.7B, FDI Jan-1999 to Jun-2021

In the period January to June 2021, FDI in Puebla reached the US$208M, distributed in reinvestment of earnings (US$208M), equity capital (US$39.2M), and inter-company debts (-US$39.1M).

From January 1999 and June 2021, Puebla accumulates a total of US$625B in FDI, distributed in equity capital (US$6.76B), reinvestment of earnings (US$6.29B), and inter-company debts (US$3.65B).

* Confidential data is not shown in the chart (see information icon in the section).

Origin Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

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Main investor country Jan-Jun 2021: United States, US$85.5M

Main investor country Jan-1999 to Jun-2021: Germany, US$5.83B

From January to June de 2021, the main origin countries of FDI in Puebla were United States (US$85.5M), Spain (US$71.3M), and Canada (US$11.3M).

Between January 1999 and June 2021, the countries that have contributed the most to FDI are Germany (US$5.83B), United States (US$5.1B), and Spain (US$2.29B).

* Countries with sensitive data are not shown on the map.

* Information download does not contain confidential data.

Public Spending

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Basic Concepts

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The Federal Expenditure Budget (PEF, by its name in Spanish) establishes the provisions for the exercise, control and evaluation of federal public spending, as well as the accounting and presentation of the corresponding financial information.

The PEF has two large sections, the Programmable Expenditure, which is intended to provide public goods and services to the population, and the Non-Programmable Expenditure, destined to the fulfillment of acquired obligations and support determined by the Law.

Regarding Programmable Expenditure, there are 3 ways to understand it:

1. Functional Distribution: serves to answer the question, what is it spent for? and corresponds to the presentation of expenditure according to the socio-economic purposes or objectives pursued by the different public entities.

2. Economic Distribution: helps to answer the question, what is it spent on? and presents the expense by its economic nature, whether current or investment.

3. Administrative Distribution: it allows to answer the question, who spends?, presenting the expenditure according to each one of the agencies and public entities to facilitate the management and control of resources.

Expenditure Budget of the Federation

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The icons indicate the annual approved budget and the amount exercised in the year selected in the upper selector.

Functional Distribution of Expenditure

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Main Budget Approved 2020: $82.5B MX, Social Development

Lowest Budget Approved 2020: $1.82B MX, Government

The functional distribution of expenditure corresponds to the socio-economic purposes or objectives pursued by the different public entities.

For the 2020, the functional distribution of expenditure was social development with $82.5B MX (corresponding to 61.6% of the total budget), others not classified in previous functions with $41.1B MX (corresponding to 30.7% of the total budget), economic development with $8.57B MX (corresponding to 6.4% of the total budget), and government with $1.82B MX (corresponding to 1.36% of the total budget).

Economic Distribution of Expenditure

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Main Budget Approved 2020: $52.8B MX, Current expenditure

Lowest Budget Approved 2020: $3.44M MX, Current expenditure (subsidies)

The economic distribution presents the expense by its economic nature, whether current or investment.

The main expenses approved for 2020 according to the economic classification were current expenditure with $52.8B MX (corresponding to 39.4% of the total budget), participations with $41B MX (corresponding to 30.6% of the total budget), and pensions and retirements with $24.6B MX (corresponding to 18.3% of the total budget).

Administrative Distribution of Expenditure

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The administrative distribution presents the expenditure according to each one of the agencies and public entities to facilitate the management and control of resources.

The main expenditures approved for 2020 according to the administrative classification were Participations to States and Municipalities with $41.1B MX (corresponding to 30.7% of the total budget), Federal Contributions for States and Municipalities with $35.8B MX (corresponding to 26.7% of the total budget), and Mexican Social Security Institute with $27.8B MX (corresponding to 20.8% of the total budget).

Economically Active Population

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Economically Active Population: 60.5%, 2021-Q2

Unemployment Rate: 4.01%, 2021-Q2

In the second quarter of 2021, the labor participation rate in Puebla was 60.5%, which implied an increase of 2.73 percentage points compared to the previous quarter (57.8%).

The unemployment rate was 4.01 % (120k people), which implied an increase of 0.55 percentage points compared to the previous quarter (3.46%).

Salaries and Workforce

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27.8% Formal - 72.2% Informal: 2.88M, Workforce 2021-Q2

$5.43k MX Formal - $2.8k MX Informal: $3.53k MX, Average Monthly Salary 2021-Q2

The population employed in Puebla in the second quarter of 2021 was 2.88M people, being  3.54% higher than the previous quarter (2.78M employed).

The average monthly salary in the second quarter of 2021 it was of $3.53k MX being $152 MX lower than the previous quarter ($3.68k MX).

Workforce and Salaries by Occupation

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Género

  • 40.4 %, Employed women 2021-Q2
  • 59.6 %, Employed men 2021-Q2

In second quarter of 2021, Puebla had 2,876,030 employed, 1.01% more than the same period of the previous year (2,847,348).

The occupations with the most workers during the second quarter of 2021 were Support Workers in Agriculture (312k), Sales Employees, Dispatchers and Dependent on Trade (220k), and Traders in Stores (171k)

Participation Rate

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The data presented is intended to offer information to monitor the situation of occupation and employment in the contingency period of COVID-19 in Puebla. Along these lines, in June 2020 the labor participation rate reached a 54.3%.

* ETOE data cannot methodologically be a continuity of the ENOE series. ENOE is included for reference purposes only.

Unemployment Rate

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The data presented is intended to offer information to monitor the situation of occupation and employment in the contingency period of COVID-19 in Puebla. Along these lines, in June 2020 the unemployment rate was 3.07%.

* ETOE data cannot methodologically be a continuity of the ENOE series. ENOE is included for reference purposes only.

Labor Informality Rate

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The data presented is intended to offer information to monitor the situation of occupation and employment in the contingency period of COVID-19 in Puebla. Along these lines, in June 2020 the rate of labor informality reached 66.5%.

* ETOE data cannot methodologically be a continuity of the ENOE series. ENOE is included for reference purposes only.

Economic Complexity

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Definition of Concepts

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Advances in the study of complex systems have inspired methods to explain differences in diversification, inequality, and economic growth at multiple geographic levels. These methods, grouped under the rubric of , are useful tools for analyzing industrial policy, economic geography, international development and innovation.

The economic complexity analysis allows visualizing the development opportunities that exist in a geographic area from dynamic relationships between industries and products. A measure of this complexity is Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

The Economic Complexity Index is a measure of the existing capacities in an economy, inferred from the connection between the localities and the activities carried out in each of them. This index has been used to predict important macroeconomic outcomes, such as income level, economic growth, social inequality, and greenhouse gas emissions.

Complexity by State

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The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) is a measure of the existing capacities in an economy, inferred from the connection between the localities and the activities carried out in each one of them. A higher level of complexity is related to the development of specific industries with a high level of required capacities, which has been related to a higher level of income, greater economic growth and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

The visualization shows the economic complexity of the states of Mexico as of May 2021. To modify the parameters used in the calculation of the Economic Complexity Index (ECI), visit the ECI explorer.

Go to ECI Explorer

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Puebla 2020: 3,423,163, Female Population

 Puebla 2020: 3,160,115, Male Population

The total population of Puebla in 2020 was 6,583,278 inhabitants, with 52% woman, and 48% men.

The municipalities of Puebla with the highest population were Puebla (1,692,181 inhabitants), Tehuacán (327,312 inhabitants), and San Martín Texmelucan (155,738 inhabitants).

The age ranges that concentrated the largest population were 15 to 19 years (607,200 inhabitants), 10 to 14 years (603,375 inhabitants), and 5 to 9 years (598,550 inhabitants). Among them they concentrated 27.5% of the total population.

* In the case of the Afro-descendant population, reference is made to the population that is recognized as Afro-descendant.

Indigenous Dialect

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622k inhabitants, Population that speaks an indigenous language

The visualization shows the 10 main indigenous languages spoken by the population of Puebla.

The population of 3 years and over that speaks at least one indigenous language was 622k inhabitants, which corresponds to 9.45% of the total population of Puebla.

The most widely spoken indigenous dialects were Náhuatl (457,480 inhabitants), Totonaco (107,007 inhabitants), and Mazateco (22,703 inhabitants).

Foreign Immigration

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The geomap shows the countries of origin of migrants to Puebla in recent years. The bar chart shows the main causes of migration.

The largest number of migrants who entered Puebla in the last 5 years came from United States (15.6k people), Venezuela (1.14k people), and Germany (927 people).

The main causes of migration to Puebla in recent years were family (11.4k people), living place (2.43k people), and labor (2.4k people).

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Internal Immigration

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People who did not reside in the state 5 years ago: 177k, Migrants to Puebla

Main state of origin of migrants: 19.9%, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave

The charts shows the internal immigration to Puebla in recent years. The values correspond to people who did not reside in the state 5 years ago.

Most of the immigrants who arrived at Puebla come from Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (35.1k people, 19.9% of all migrants), Ciudad de México (30.4k people, 17.2% of all migrants), and Estado de México (29.7k people, 16.8% of all migrants).

* The chart is displayed on a logarithmic scale for ease of understanding. Immigrants who did not specify the state of origin are excluded from the chart.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Average Quarterly Total Current Income per Household

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  • $39.6k MX, Average quarterly current income in 2020
  • $120k MX, Difference between decile I and X in 2020

The visualization shows the total average quarterly current income per household in deciles of households in Puebla comparing the years 2016, 2018 and 2020.

In Puebla, 10% of the lowest income households (first decile) had an average quarterly income of $8.6k MX in 2020, while the 10% of households with the highest income (tenth decile) had an average quarterly income of $129k MX in the same period.

Household Income and Expenses

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Total current quarterly household income: $69.4B MX, Puebla 2020

Total quarterly current expenditure of households: $45.8B MX, Puebla 2020

In Puebla, the total quarterly current income in 2020 was $69.4B MX. The main sources of household income in 2020 were work income (63.8%) and transfers (19.7%).

In the same period, the quarterly monetary current expenditure was $45.8B MX. The main current expenses of households were food (39.1%), transport (16.7%), and housing (9.65%).

* Values at 2020 present value prices.

Variations in Household Income and Expenses

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Between 2018 and 2020, the household spending item that increased the most was health, by a 102%. The expense that decreased the most was education, in a -39.9%.

Regarding household income, the item that increased the most was others current income, in a 28%. The income that decreased the most was property rent, in a -33.9%.

* Values at 2020 present value prices.

Diversity of the Person of Reference or Head of the Household

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  • 31.7%, Dwellings with women heads of household
  • 68.3%, Dwellings with men heads of household

According to data from the Population Census 2020, 1.71M dwellings were registered. Of these, 31.7% are homes where the person of reference is a woman and 68.3% corresponds to homes where the person of reference is a man.

Regarding the age ranges of the person of reference, 11.5% of the dwellings concentrated heads of household between 40 a 44 años.

Mazapiltepec de Juárez: 0.322, Municipality with less inequality

Tecomatlán: 0.495, Municipality with the highest inequality

The Gini coefficient or Gini index is a statistical measure designed to represent the income distribution of the inhabitants, specifically, the inequality between them. Indices closer to 0, represent more equity among its inhabitants, while values close to 1, express maximum inequity among its population.

In 2015, in Puebla, the municipalities with the lowest social inequality, according to the GINI index, were: Mazapiltepec de Juárez (0.322), Tlacuilotepec (0.325), San Juan Atenco (0.329), Tepeyahualco de Cuauhtémoc (0.330), and Cuautinchán (0.330). On the other hand, the municipalities with less social equality by this metric were: Tecomatlán (0.495), San Miguel Ixitlán (0.475), Caxhuacan (0.468), Chiautla (0.463), and Teteles de Ávila Castillo (0.462).

Poverty and Social Deprivation Indicators 2010-2015

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Percentage of the Total Population in 2015

  • 10.9%, Population in extreme poverty
  • 50%, Population in moderate poverty

The visualization compares various indicators of poverty and social deprivation in 2010 and 2015.

In 2015, 50% of the population was in a situation of moderate poverty and 10.9% in extreme poverty. The vulnerable population due to social deprivation reached a 22%, while the vulnerable population due to income was 6.11%.

The main social deficiencies of Puebla in 2015 were deprivation social security, deprivation basic services housing and deprivation food access.

Access to Basic Services

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Population without Access to Water: 4.45%, (2020)

Population without Electricity: 0.76%, (2020)

Population without Bathroom: 1.68%, (2020)

Population without Sewerage: 4.82%, (2020)

The visualization shows the percentage evolution of the population without access to basic services between 2000 and 2020.

In 2020, 4.82% of the population in Puebla did not have access to sewage systems (317k people), 4.45% did not have a water supply network (293k people) , 1.68% did not have a bathroom (111k people) and 0.76% did not have electricity (50.3k people).

Infonavit Credits

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The graph shows the number of Infonavit credits delivered monthly in Puebla, or the total amount of credits delivered, depending on the option selected in the upper button.

In July 2021, 1,097 credits were delivered, equivalent to an amount of $245M MX.

Quality of Life

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Rooms and Bedrooms of the House

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  • 26.2%, Housing with 3 rooms (2020)
  • 39.7%, Housing with 2 bedrooms (2020)

In 2020, most inhabited private homes had 3 and 4 rooms, 26.2% and 23.4%, respectively.

In the same period, the inhabited private homes with 2 and 1 bedrooms, 39.7% and 32.1%, respectively.

* The percentage distribution does not add to 100% because the value of the unspecified is not included.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Services and Connectivity in the Housing

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The icons show the percentage of households that have certain elements of connectivity and/or services. With the upper selector you can switch between 5 categories that include different elements: access to technologies, entertaiment, availability of goods, availability of transport and equipment.

Data provided by Censo de Población y Vivienda 2020 (Cuestionario Básico y Cuestionario Ampliado)

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2020: 31.5, Average time travel to work in minutes

 2020: 19.1, Average time travel to school in minutes

The visualization shows the population distribution according to travel times to work in 2020 compared to travel times at the national level.

In Puebla, the average travel time from home to work was 31.5 minutes, 77.4% of the population takes less than an hour to move, while 9.29% takes more than 1 hour to get to work.

On the other hand, the average travel time from home to place of study was 19.1 minutes, 95.2% of the population takes less than an hour to move, while 3.5% takes more than 1 hour.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Means of Transportation to Work and to School

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The visualization shows the distribution of the means of transport to work or place to study used by the population of Puebla according to travel times.

In 2020, 46.9% of the population used bus, taxi, or similar as the main means of transportation to work.

Regarding the means of transport to go to the place of study, 71% of the population used bus, taxi, or similar as the main means of transportation.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Levels of Schooling

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The chart shows the percentage distribution of the population aged 15 years and over in Puebla according to the approved academic degree.

In 2020, the main academic degrees of the population of Puebla were Primary School (1.3M people or 29.2% of the total), Middle School (1.18M people or 26.5% of the total), and High School or General Baccalaureate (947k people or 21.3% of the total).

It is possible to see the distribution of academic degrees by sex by changing the option selected in the upper button.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Illiteracy rate

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Puebla 2020: 6.96%, Average illiteracy rate

The illiteracy rate for Puebla in 2020 was 6.96%. Of the total illiterate population, 36.3% corresponded to men and 63.7% to women.

The geomap shows the illiteracy rate in the municipalities of Puebla. You can click on a municipality to change the population pyramid to the selected municipality.

* The illiterate population is considered to be the population aged 15 and over who cannot read or write.

School Attendance

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Percentage of school attendance Puebla: 93%, Population between 6 and 14 years

Percentage of school attendance in Puebla: 67.9%, Population between 3 and 5 years

The chart shows the stratification of the municipalities according to the percentage of the population that attends school. By default, the chart shows the population between 3 and 24 years old, however you can see the stratification in other age ranges by changing the option selected in the upper selector.

In 2020, 67.9% of the population of Puebla between 3 and 5 years old attended school, 93% of the population between 6 and 14 years old and 44% of the population between 15 and 24 years old.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Higher Education Enrollments

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Top Women Area (Bachelor's Degrees - 2020): 32.5k, Business Administration

Top Men Area (Bachelor's Degrees - 2020): 41.4k, Engineering, manufacturing and construction

The areas with the highest number of men enrolled in bachelor's degrees were Engineering, manufacturing and construction (41,383), Business Administration (23,512), and social sciences and law (20,950). Similarly, the study areas that concentrated the most women enrolled in bachelor's degrees were Business Administration (32,454), social sciences and law (30,131), and Health Sciences (28,560).

It is possible to review this distribution in other years and different areas of study by changing the options selected in the upper buttons.

Higher Education Enrollment by Institution and Careers

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In Puebla, the institutions that concentrated the highest number of students in 2020 were Benemérita Universidad Autónoma De Puebla (85.3k), Instituto De Estudios Universitarios, A.C. (19.4k), and Universidad Popular Autónoma Del Estado De Puebla (13.6k).

The same year, the most demanded careers in Puebla were Law degree (20.7k), Degree in psychology (10.6k), and Industrial engineering (9.57k).

Literacy Studies for Adults

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  • 587,416, Students enrolled in 2020
  • 11,015, Literate students in 2020

In 2020 Puebla had 156k students enrolled in entry-level literacy courses, 197k students enrolled at intermediate level and 235k students enrolled at the advanced level.

In the same year, Puebla had 2.56k students who completed the initial literacy course, 2.74k intermediate literate students and 5.72k students who completed advanced level courses.

Adult Education

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The National Institute for Adult Education (INEA) is an educational institution that serves people over 15 years of age who did not have the opportunity to learn to read or write.

In Puebla, the second quarter of 2021 INEA had 5.33k advisers and 462 active teaching technicians. In the same period it had 51 zone coordination, 388 community squares, 11.8k study areas and 393 meeting areas.

Comparing the second quarter of 2020 and 2021, the number of advisers decreased -11.4% (6.02k in 2020) and the number of active teaching technicians decreased -3.14% (477 in 2020). The area coordinates more than 6.25% (48 in 2020), community squares more than 2.65% (378 in 2020), the study areas less than -4.99% (12.4k in 2020) and meeting areas less than -1.5% (399 in 2020).

Health Options and Coverage

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  • 40.6 %, Population served by Seguro Popular
  • 18.5 %, Population served by Social Security

In Puebla, the most widely used health care options in 2020 were SSAs Health Care Center or Hospital (2.62M), Pharmacy Office (1.52M), and IMSS (Social Security) (1.19M).

In the same year, the social insurances that grouped the largest number of people were Pemex, Defense or Marine (2.98M) and Not Specified (1.66M).

* The sum of the affiliated population is greater than the national population because a person can be affiliated with multiple health institutions.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Difficulty Performing Daily Activities

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In 2020, the main disabilities present in the population of Puebla were physical disability (139k people), visual disability (126k people), and hearing disability (73.3k people).

* A person can have more than one disability and appear counted in more than one category.

Disability and Diversity

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The chart shows the population pyramid of disability population in Puebla. With the upper selector it is possible to review the population pyramid for different types of disability.

By default, the chart shows the distribution of the visual disability population. 126,411 people with visual disabilities were totaled, 55.9% women and 44.1% men.

According to gender and age range, women among 85 or more years concentrated the 6.77% of the total population with visual disability, while men among 85 or more years concentrated the 4.33% of this population group.

Causes or Origins of Disabilities

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The matrix chart shows the distribution of the population with disabilities according to the type of disability and its causes or origins.

* A person can have more than one disability and appear counted in more than one category.

* The data displayed were obtained from the extended questionnaire whose data have a confidence interval of 90% and an error of 0.2.

Public security

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Definition of Concepts

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In order to understand Public Safety in Mexico, this section analyzes two main concepts corresponding to theoretical approaches from which the level of Public Safety is understood: a) Perception and b) Complaint.

The perception of security seeks to measure the perception of public security that the population and households have about the place where they reside and its relationship with crime. On the other hand, the perception of trust in authorities or institutional performance seeks to know how the population perceives authorities and the actions they carry out, regardless of whether or not they have been victims of crime.

The term of complaint is used in the act by which a subject, victim or witness of a crime, reports or establishes the facts in front of the pertinent authorities, reporting an irregularity, criminal act or crime in order to be investigated.

Perception of Security

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Perception of Security in your State

  • 13.2 %, Men
  • 8.15 %, Women

In 2020, 13.2% of men over 18 years old in Puebla perceived security in their state, while 8.15% of women over 18 years old shared this perception.

At the personal level, men from the lower class socio-demographic stratum perceived greater security (17.4%), while women perceived greater security in the upper middle socioeconomic stratum (9.83%).

Trust in Authorities

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In 2020, 10.6% of the population of Puebla claimed to have a lot of confidence in the state police, while a 11.7% indicated they have a lot of distrust.

Similarly, a 38.4% of the population assured that they had a lot of trust in the Public Ministry and State Prosecutors, a 52.1% in the Judges and a 14.1% in the Federal Police, while a 2.55%, a 1.06% and a 8.57% claimed to have a lot of distrust in them, respectively.

When comparing by gender and the much trust option, women from Puebla claimed to feel more confidence in the State Police against men; less trust in the Federal Police, less trust in Judges and less trust in the Public Ministry and the State Prosecutors.

* Percentages exclude the "Don't know / no answer" option.

Complaints by Goods Affected

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August 2021

  • 6,134, Total complaints
  • Stole, Main complaint

The complaints with the highest occurrence during August 2021 were Stole (2.4k), Domestic Violence (713), and Injury (484), which covered a 58.6% of total complaints for the month.

When comparing the number of complaints in August 2020 and August 2021, those with the highest growth were Electoral (200%), Sexual Harassment (108%), and Falsification (105%).

Economic Indicators

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According to data from the Economic Census 2019, the economic sectors that concentrated the most economic units in Puebla were Retail Trade (134,900 unidades), Manufacturing Industries (50,091 unidades), and Other Services except Government Activities (36,606 unidades).

* It is recommended to consider the values as approximations of the real value because some records have been anonymized due to confidentiality principles.

Internet Purchases and Sales

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The chart shows the distribution of economic units by sector according to the amounts of internet purchases and sales made in 2018.

The economic sectors that stood out for higher amounts of internet purchases were Manufacturing Industries ($149B MX companies), Retail Trade ($24.9B MX companies), and To the Wholesale Trade ($19.9B MX companies).

The economic sectors that stood out for higher amounts of internet sales were Manufacturing Industries ($190B MX companies), To the Wholesale Trade ($12.2B MX companies), and Retail Trade ($11.2B MX companies).

Environmental Standard

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Average percentage: 15.1%, Meets the standard

 Average percentage: 62.3%, Does not meet the standard

The visualization shows the percentage of large economic units by economic sector according to compliance with the environmental standard in 2018.

In 2018, the economic sectors with the highest percentage of large economic units that met the environmental standard were Health and Social Assistance Services (45.6%), Manufacturing Industries (26.5%), and Retail Trade (21.2%).

In contrast, the economic sectors with the highest percentage of large economic units that did NOT comply with the environmental standard were Mining (88.4%), Financial and Insurance Services (80.1%), and Support Services to Business and Waste Management and Waste and Remediation Services (77.3%).

Actions Regarding Environmental Protection

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The donut chart indicates the percentage of large economic units that carried out separation of their waste, while the bar chart shows the percentage of large economic units according to the type of waste separated.

According to data from the Economic Census 2019, 52.6% of the large economic in Puebla separated their waste, highlighting the separation of paper (89.5%), plastic (74.8%), and metal (42.7%).

Problems Faced by Economic Units

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The chart shows the main problems faced by economic units. With the upper selector it is possible to analyze the problems affecting companies according to their size. By default, the problems of economic units with up to 10 people are shown.

According to data from the Economic Census 2019, the main problems faced by the economic units with up to 10 workers in Puebla are public insecurity (25.9%), another problems (18.3%), unfair competition problems (12.5%), and low demand for goods or services (11.6%).